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Norman England and Cambria

I have been reading The Norman Heritage by Trevor Rowley to see what
information can be applicable to Kemr after the Norman Conquest.  Some
initial thoughts have come to hand.

After the Conquest the Cambrians made Aberddui (Chester), Gwregon
(Wroxeter) and Casgwegl (Hereford) into lordships for the defense of the

The basic administrative unit remained the centref, the hundred, which were
united in larger administrative units called phaes, countries.  Only in the
border country did lords build castles for their protection.  Elsewhere
each lord maintained his (or her) own curth, court.  They were not built to
be defended but to administer law and money matters.  Most communities were
no larger than hamlets and self-sustaining.  Market-towns only exist in
such cities survived from the Roman era or developed in the protection of
the castles.

The national church remained decentralised and inconsistantly disciplined.
Parishes were maintained by the chlas, communities of preaching monks.  The
model of the fully cloistered monk did not reach Cambria until the
introduction of monastic orders after the unification with the Church of
Rome in 1100.

- andrew.